MAY 2014

How to Grow Bamboo

by: Hans Dekker (reading – 7.4. - 13.4.)

Bamboo is a mysterious and elusive plant that baffles taxonomists who try to contain it within a botanical class and gardeners who try to contain it within a limited garden space as they learn how to grow bamboo. For many years, bamboo was thought to be a primitive grass but recent DNA testing has shown it to be one of the most highly evolved forest grasses. There are over 1200 forms of bamboo that grow in a broad spectrum of color including the familiar green and gold as well as burgundy, blue and even black grasses. Some varieties of bamboo can grow up to a foot a day and ultimately reach 130 feet tall while the smallest bamboo cultivar attains only six inches of growth.

The first step in learning how to grow bamboo is picking a cultivar and beginning to unravel its many mysteries. While most of us picture tall stands of green and golden canes growing in tropical bamboo forests, bamboo cultivars range from the temperate to the tropical. As well as diversity in cultivar, bamboo has over 1500 documented uses that range from use in construction to the making of acupuncture needles and from agricultural fodder to the making of musical instruments. Until they are cut, bamboos stems are properly called culms and not canes. In India bamboo plants are commonly called the "Wood of the poor" and in China the ”friend of the people". To add to the confusion, a cultivar commonly sold as “lucky bamboo” isn't bamboo at all but a type of lily from the Dracaena family!

Unluckily for bamboo, it has the reputation for being an invasive plant, growing from running rhizomes. Although this is true for some cultivars, the most cold-hardy plants don't run at all, but grow from well-behaved clumps with well-established root systems. One thing that bamboo cultivars do have in common is that they are perennial plants. As noted above, some bamboos varieties are temperate and some are tropical. Because its diversity, it's easy to find a suitable cultivar when you want to learn how to grow bamboo. Bamboo cultivars range from those that grow indoors to outdoors, in a garden or in a container, in bright light or shade.

Two considerations in knowing how to grow bamboo successfully are water and air. All true bamboos are grasses and won't grow in saturated soils. They also need air circulation to thrive. In fact, some bamboo growers raise the pots of their small cultivars on chopsticks to provide air circulation under the plant as well as around it. Large pots are often elevated with heavy dowels.

The bamboo is a symbol of long life, strength and versatility for many cultures of the world. Unraveling its mysteries is a continuing source of enjoyment. When you know how to grow bamboo, you'll find that your love for the plant grows as fast as your bamboo does!

About The Author

Hans is gardener and owner of and .

History of the Diesel Engine

by: John Stafford (reading – 14.4. - 20.4.)

The diesel engine has a long history that is intertwined closely with economic and other issues of the time. The diesel engine was created by Rudolph Diesel. He conceptualized the diesel engine and thought up the principle of its operation. He thought up the concept of the engine that compresses air to the degree where there is a resulting rise in temperature.

The concept followed the principle that if the air enters the chamber with the piston the air ignites due to the high temperatures. This causes the piston to move down and eliminates the need for an ignition source. When Diesel designed his engine it was in a time when there was a demand for a more fuel efficient engine as the steam engine was nowhere close to efficient.

It was on February 27th, 1892 that Diesel filed a patent in the patent office in Germany for his method and design for the combustion engine. He sourced contracts from companies that manufactured machines and began his experimentation stage. During this stage he constructed working models of his design in an attempt to construct the most efficient engine of that time.

It was in the year 1893 that he was successful in putting out the first model that was able to run with its own power and with an efficiency of approximately 26%. This was more than double the efficiency of the steam engines of that time and was a great stride for the efficient engine and a great start to the engines of today.

It was in February of 1897 that he accomplished a great achievement and produced a diesel engine that ran at 75% efficiency. This was the first one of its kind that was deemed suitable for practical use and was demonstrated at the Exhibition fair in France in the year 1898. This engine in particular run on peanut oil and in Diesel's vision it was great for the small business owners as well as farmers as it used an economical fuel source that was a biomass fuel. It was his use of a biomass fuel that continued until the 1920’s and it is starting again today.

In the past diesel engines were not considered to be small enough for anything but use that was stationary in nature as they were very heavy and cumbersome. Common uses were on ships and for industrial uses. Rudolph Diesel disappeared in 1913 and it was not certain whether he died a natural or unnatural death. Many thought his death was related to the politics of the time and the vast knowledge he possessed and was willing to share with enemies of the German government of the time.

In the 1920s the engine was redesigned into a smaller and more compact version. This allowed it to be used for a wider range of applications and even in the automobile industry. The development of the diesel engine continued and it was made better and better by other inventors such as Clessie L. Cummins who worked out many of the bugs of the diesel engine such as those concerning size and weight as well as the instability of the fuel system.

About The Author

John Stafford is a webmaster and a contributor for , and .

Visit to research your next diesel engine or diesel generator then purchase from one of our wide range. offers experienced and professional advice to assist you in your next diesel decison.

Chanel 5 and Other Perfumes Naming

by: Danil Davidov (reading – 21.4. - 27.4.)

Have you ever thought about the names of the perfumes? Why each of them has its specific own name? Is it a spontaneous decision to name a perfume “JOY”, “Shalimar” or “CHANEL N’ 5” ? Why N’ 5 and not N’ 6 , N’ 7 or N’ 8?

“Perfume”, says Sophia Grosjman, IFF’s star perfumer, “is a promise in a bottle”.

We want to believe. We crave to be prettier, richer, sexier and happier than we are. Perfume speaks more to our vulnerabilities than to our strengths. Consider the labels on the fragrances we buy: Pleasures, Beautiful, Delicious, Sexy. As Charles Revson said: “We sell hope”. And we buy. But, behind almost every significant perfume there is a story. Take for example “Shalimar”.

According to a legend, Raymond Guerlain and his wife were on their trip to USA by sea. His wife wore “Shalimar” and all of the passengers were astonished by this innovative, oriental vanilla scented perfume. When the couple landed USA, all the high society fell in love with “Shalimar” which became favorite still today. The perfume got its name from a legend about an Indian emperor who had a garden named “Shalimar”.

“My dresses fit very well my clients ... I want a perfume addressed to a modern woman that will fit her as my clothes do. It must have a character. And it must be an expensive one”. Ernest Beaux, the creator of “CHANEL N’ 5” introduced Coco Chanel (Gabrielle) ten bottles, and separated them in two groups. One group was numbered in numbers from 1 to 5, the second group was numbered 20 to 24. Mademoiselle Chanel chose bottle N’ 5. When Beaux asked her why she had chosen that specific bottle, she answered: “I am going to exhibit my collection on May the 5th, c’est-a-dire, the 5th day of the 5th month. So let’s take a bottle with this number. Hope this number will bring success to perfume”.

About The Author

Our experts made a research to find the best online perfume source. Find the best selling perfume for women on , – Web content experts.

Hydrogen Fuel Cells

by: Hans Dekker (reading – 28.4. - 4.5.)

As a lot of the alternative energy sources, Hydrogen Fuel Cells are a relatively new technology that was originally developed for the space program.

In fact they are similar to batteries in that they produce electricity by a chemical reaction combined with an electrical charge. The difference with batteries is that power is only produced while the fuel cell is being fed with hydrogen. You can find more in depth information about their workings on our site.

The amount of electricity the fuel cell produces depends on the size of the cell as well as the rate of flow of the hydrogen. The chemical reaction between hydrogen and the air produces electricity, water and heat.

The heat output from a fuel cell, however, is quite low when compared with other energy sources such as fossil fuels.

There are several advantages of hydrogen fuel cells over other power supplies. First of all they are clean - the only byproducts are water and a little bit of heat.

Secondly, they are very efficient. Gasoline engines, for example, operate at an efficiency rate of about 20%. Fuel cells have an efficiency rate between 45% and 53%.

Hydrogen fuel cells can be used anywhere electricity is required. Since their size is scalable they can be made small enough to power an MP3 player or big enough to power a town. They can also be used to provide rotary power for vehicles.

The automobile industry is looking at fuel cells as a replacement for the internal combustion engine. If they become popular, cars powered with fuel cells will reduce our dependency on petroleum and cut down on pollution.

Hydrogen fuel cells have also been installed to provide power for industrial buildings and even whole neighborhoods.

Fuel cells are expected to replace petroleum as a power source within 50 to 100 years. They have broad commercial and social applications. They could be used to bring electricity to remote settlements around the world as well as to provide a source of renewable power for portable devices.

Government support and commercial interest has guaranteed the success of this sustainable, clean energy source.

This all might sound great, but there is a catch. We need energy to produce hydrogen. At the moment the most widely used energy source to produce that hydrogen are fossil fuels.

So Fuel Cells are certainly an option, but we will need a lot of extra research to find ways to safely produce the hydrogen we need.

About The Author

Hans Dekker is author and owner of . On our site you will find introductions and more in depth articles about renewable energy sources.